CULTURAL ART REPRESENTATION IN TOURISM INDUSTRY IN GLOBALIZATION AGE: A CRITICAL REVIEW

Dr. Argyo Demartoto, M.Si.

 

Introduction

Globalization has affected all aspects of life including the cultural aspect of the world society, including Indonesian society, particularly the people of Surakarta City. A modern social interaction containing commercial values and penetration of modern countries’ institutions is one important factors contributing to the fundamental social relationship transformation (Lynch, 2011). Such the social situation leads to different social interaction patterns across social entities, that in turn also establishes different process in cultural art and tourism transformation and contestation.

In this globalization age, the society is at postmodern phase. The society in the present appreciates pluralism, realizes that culture is unique and has commonness. Culture is a pluralism dialectics, found through reinterpreting the old symbols critically to find the new or actual meaning while creating the new symbol or myth. The presence is always attributed to other’s and can only be understood through interaction. A work is created with other reference and is recognized as the legacy as well as a new invention process. This society considers that legacy without new invention will die and new invention without legacy is impossible (Dunn, 1993). The question is “what is the serious implication of this new tendency to the existence of cultural art in tourism industry in Surakarta city as an area with strong traditional culture?

In Surakarta city, the traditional performing art like wayang orang performing art, wayang kulit (leather puppet) art, kethoprak art, traditional Javanese dance art, and etc are the traditional ones that are still recognized for their existence today among the artist community and wide society. Such the arts still conserve the Javanese philosophy prioritizing moral education about good and bad, such as decorum and language etiquette (Soedarsono, 1998). The problem is then “how is the position of traditional performing art in the industry of culture, particularly in relation to tourism industry because in this globalization age, such the traditional performing art serves as one of art implanted in Javanese traditional that will be apprehensively extinct. This article will study the existence of traditional performing art related to commoditization, commodification, and touristification processes of traditional performing art in globalization age.

 

Globalization Process in Creating Global Culture

Globalization is a condition when the world is a unity, one country to another is as if borderless. In this age, each country or area throughout the world the location of which is far away from another can communicate directly. The borders of a country could be penetrated by sophisticated telecommunication means, such as internet network, telephone, television and etc. In using one of these means, for example: television, an event in one country can be watched in some different places and at the same time. It leads to information, goods, and cultural exchanges proceed rapidly (Robertson, 1992; Wood, 1997; Mowforth and Munt, 1998; Feathestone and Lash, 1999; Azarya, 2004)

The globalization process occurs in five ways: etnoscape, mediascape, technoscape, finanscape, and ideoscape. Etnoscape is the globalization process through person, such as tourist, exiled person, immigrant, and foreign worker. Globalization through mediascape is the one through sophisticated means or media (computer), electronic media (radio and television) as well as through other mass media (newspaper). Technoscape is the one through machine and multinational production output; national corporations, and governmental institutions, while money markets, financial speculation, and goods distributuon are the components used in globalization through finanscape. Globalization through ideoscape is the globalization by the means of Western concepts and ideology, such as liberality, human rights, power and democracy (Nas, 1998).

Particularly in Indonesia, globalization is always attributed to the national issue playing an important part in the process toward the international level as its main focus. Several writers claim that economy is the driver of globalization and from this it is transferred subsequently to other field, particularly politics and culture. For example, the globalization attempt in dance art field. Indonesia that wants to make its dance art known by the world society, has attempted optimally to encourage the potential local dancers bringing the local dances into international level (Soedarsono, 1998). It means that conserving the national culture in globalization age can be done by means of creating its culture and introducing it to the wide society.

Globalization is the process of eliminating the border between the local space and global space or an adjustment of an object to global level. In this process, the group identity is combined with the new (regional) identity in the attempt of looking for general identity or new shared identity or symbol. The measure taken is to emphasize on the local identity.  The local character is attributed to giving emphasis on the inherited cultural character, while the global one is formed later. In its process, globalization and localization, occur simultaneously; it means that the localization process is confirmed by the globalization process, and vice versa. In this case, the local is not only passive or just receive the effect, but also selects busily, organizes as well reprocess creatively so that a global culture forms. The global culture has its own different characteristicts from the previous one has (Wood, 1997; Hines, 2000; Beck, 2000; Cawley et. al: 2002; Azarya, 2004).

 

The Role of Cultural Art in Tourism Development

Cultural art (art) is an expression of an individual’s spirit occurring by the work and will process. As the expressive appearance of its creator, art is closely related to cultural elements such as language, social organization, economic system, technology system, belief system, knowledge system and art system. As a part of culture, art can be categorized into performing art (dance, theatrical, musical, and pencak silat arts); fine art (pure, painting, sculpture, skill and design art); literary art (prose or poetry) and the last and the widely developed, multimedia art (film, video, and other record). Art at least has such functions as: giving beauty and enjoyment, giving entertainment, symbolic presentation, giving physical response, synchronizing the norms of societal life, establishing the social institution and religious ceremony, contributing to the cultural sustainability and stability, contributing to societal integration and communication means (Soedarsono, 1991; Sedarmayanti, 2005).

Independent of pros and cons within Indonesian society concerning the role of cultural art is closely related to the tourism development, art, in addition to having local esthetical elements, also has universal esthetical elements, namely a value understandable to all groups of human being in the world. It enables the art to become a reliable communication means between the societies, nations, and countries. In tourism industry, cultural tour is defined as a type of tourism activity the object of which is culture. It is different from other specialties, such as natural tour and adventure tour. The cultural tour “attraction” objects can range from art (fine art and any form of performing art) to fashion, culinary, custom ceremony, immunity demonstration, and to communication with supernatural nature, built environment, as well as special functional skills. In this case, there is frequently a discrepancy between the taste of artists and that of tourism industry. For that reasons, the compromises should be taken frequently.

Every step and movement in the attempt of developing tourism normatively is expected always based on the national culture. Thus, any aspects related to tourism such as promotion, attraction, architecture, ethics, organization, management pattern, food, souvenir, are expected to use the potential culture as well as possible. The position of art and culture in developing Indonesian tourism, is not only as to support media, but also to give  the society it self the “identity” (Yoeti, 2006).

Cultural tourism as a tourism development policy in Indonesia emphasizes on the appearance of cultural elements such as main asset to attract the tourists to visit Indonesia. It does not mean that other aspects, such as natural beauty, beach and scenery, flora and fauna including beneath the sea surface life, sport, and other types of entertainments, will be abandoned. The cultural elements have very important benefits including to promote the tourism generally both domestically and abroad; the cultural art product will prepare job opportunity and increase the society’s income; art and cultural appearance, in addition to attracting the tourist’s interest, can also improve the art and cultural empowerment, cultural art appearance can improve the maintenance and management of museum,  gallery, and other cultural art monuments, the fund raised from art and cultural product sale can improve the society’s standard of life as well as the contact with other cultural art can improve the self-esteem, respect and understanding about the definition of humanity (Yoeti, 2006).

For that reason, the principles of tourism development In Indonesia is directed to preserving the art and culture; implanting the love to homeland and nation’s self-identity; increasing foreign exchange; creating job opportunity and business opportunity; and introducing the customs and Indonesian culture in the attempt of establishing inter-nation relationship.

 

The Implication of Globalization to Cultural Art and Tourism

The cultural art aspect is the basic capital of tourism development in most tourist destinations in Indonesia. The effect of globalization on these aspects can occur directly because of the presence of commoditization process in a variety of cultural aspects, or can occur indirectly through a long-term process. However, secularization of various traditions can apprehensively bring about very structural impact in long term because the society will loss its collective memory and interpretation on a variety of traditions that will be deconstructed (Pitana and Gayatri, 2005). In this case there is a cultural function, because culture is considered as a commercial resource suggesting that there is a negative effect due to the presence of commoditization (Cohen, 1988).

Some authors state that tourism has damaged or destroyed the local culture. Tourism directly “compels “ the local cultural expression to be modified in order to be fit in tourism requirement. Cultural expression is commodified in order to be “sold” to the tourist, for example, Balinese culture. Balinese culture has eroded, that can be seen from: (1) the emergence of demonstration effect, the local people’s predisposition to imitate the tourist’s lifestyle, regardless their own culture, such as the higher level of tolerance to deviating behavior, veneration to Western art, and over-orientation to foreign countries-made dresses; (2) commoditization occurs to the culture; (3) the quality of art product; (4) profaning sacred art, ritual activity and holy places; and (5) some people states that some members of Balinese society have increasingly small will to maintain their cultural identity recently (Mathieson and Wall, 1991; Wood, 1997; Pitana and Gayatri, 2005;  Picard, 2006).

Tourism development brings about an effect on local culture so that many people are worry that the process of authenticity loss will occur in local culture (Soekadijo, 1997). However, Urry (1990) states that culture always adapts to everything, including in dealing with the tourism and in this process, it does not mean that the meaning or the authenticity is vanished automatically. Acculturation is a reasonable process in every contact between cultures.

Not all observers are pessimistic to a culture’s sustainability. The social economic change occurs in couple with the attempt of traditional culture conservation. Tourism, in fact, has confirmed the process of conservation, reformation, and recreation of various traditions. Tourism selectively has confirmed the local tradition, through a process called cultural involution because the culture has high vitality and ability to adapt to new conditions. The effect of tourism is additive not substitutive in nature. It means that such the effect does not lead to structurally transformation, but integrated with the society’s traditional life (Mc Kean, 1978). So, art, craft, and a variety of local cultural aspects can experience revitalization due to the tourism arrival (de Kadt, 1984).

The implication of globalization to cultural art and tourism is always attributed to the following.

  1. a.      Cultural originality as the identity of society

“Originality” issue is frequently debated, both art originality and society and culture originality. But the concept of ‘originality’ itself a very problematic thing. There are several fundamental problems in talking about this originality. Speaking of originality issue, generally the image imagined is the presence of a society characterized by its ‘natural’, ‘primitive’, and ‘exotic’ conditions. In reality, there is no culture completely static, that does not change over time. All societies and their cultures change, despite different pace.

Generally, the tourist gives different emphasis on the meaning of ‘originality’. A tourism scholar, Eric Cohen (1988), states that originality is a negotiable thing, because originality is a concept constituting the product of social construction and very contextual. Moreover, in relation to the tourism, originality is not something static, because tourist is not a passive consumer, but an active one, contributing to determining the originality level of something, society or its cultural product. In the term of souvenir production, for example, most tourists say that ‘originality’ is closely related to the souvenir’s uniqueness to an area, meaning that it cannot be found in other areas. Because the local uniqueness becomes the standard, the imitative work by the local artists, as found in painting art works and sculpture in Bali, is still categorized into ‘authentic’ category, but the Irian Jaya Asmat-style sculpture  made in Surakarta City is ‘imitation’, and therefore ‘is not authentic’. In addition, some tourists argue that originality is also found in the material used. An originality is really ‘authentic’ when the material used has become tradition, the local and natural one. A variety of accessories from outside (such as colorant) is considered as reducing its originality.

A sufficiently large number of tourists argue that the very fundamental criteria of determining the originality is the artist itself. It means that, an art work will be authentic when it uses traditional, natural material, and hand-made (not machine-made), and the artist is ‘native’. Equally important, many tourists also say that the authentic (original) work is the one not touched by commoditization. The works traded as commodity are not ‘authentic’, because their production is not encouraged by traditional motivation, and it is no longer sacred. In other words, the authenticity of the work has been reduced because the motivation of its production is not related to the objectives of traditional use.

Cultural authenticity is frequently attributed to the society’s identity. From many examples above, presumably it is reasonable that many people concern currently with ‘the loss of cultural authenticity’ in tourist destination (particularly the art aspect). Behind it, however, it should be rethought that basically it is very difficult to found something ‘authentic’, and it is not always associated with the tourism development. With and without tourism, the society always change. The worry that tourism will remove the society’s ‘originality’ and ‘identity’ is apparently too excessive. At more extreme level, it is not excessive to say that the ‘authentic society’ or ‘authentic culture’ never exists in cultural history, because the society and culture always change in time function (Cohen, 1988).

In line with this, it should be put forward that authenticity and identity is not fixed value, both an ever changing thing, in the process of interaction with external environment, and internal dynamics of the society itself. In some societies with sturdy order, a variety of cultural aspects absorbed from outside even can be ‘processed’ in such a way that the foreign cultural element is no longer apparently foreign (strange), but it as if has been ‘originally’ owned by the society.

 

  1. b.      Commoditization

In tourism industry, there are tourist agencies, those operating in tourism industry ‘compelling’ the society to change the performing art into the one consistent with the tourist’s desire. The performers of traditional performing art have become the victim of tourism development because a society- and cultural-binding network. In tourism industry, there is a phenomenon in which the society loses its authenticity and identity quickly, as the result of society’s predisposition to assessing the tourists’ lifestyle with the culture it brings with, that is considered as more advanced and with higher value. Such the damage to traditional values is closely related to the commercialization and materialism development in the relationship between human beings, constituting one general consequence of tourism. The moral values generally underlying social relationship changes into economic value (de Kadt, 1984; Wood, 1997). Along with the increased domination of economic value, commodity of culture is always apparently very prominent in all tourist area and cultural heritage has changed in its function into tourism asset (Picard, 2006). The existing phenomenon is the culture that has been packed, priced, and sold like selling other merchandises, such as fast food. The commoditization of culture finally has seized human beings from meaning and value to which they organize their living and life (Fairclough, 1995).

In some cases such as: Bali, Yogyakarta and Surakarta Cities, it cannot be denied that art has changed widely, and the artist’s orientation is not solely on the sacred art, but more on economic (commercial) orientation. Art has experienced commoditization  process, in which art value has been measured with money (market value), like other commodities. More interestingly, the artists apparently can differentiate which art can be intended to the tourist, and which art can be enjoyed as ‘art’ for themselves.

So far, the degradation of art quality can only be assessed by the expert and art critics, meanwhile the wide society generally does not see it. The adherents of pure art (purist) frequently complains about the degradation of art quality due to commercialization. The public even frequently cannot enjoy the art considered as ‘having high quality’ by the critics. For example, the artists states that Gambyong Pareanom, Golek, Menak, Pendet dances and etc are high-quality dances. In fact, they are not attractive in the public’s eyes. Otherwise, ludruk art said as the ‘low-quality’ art, in fact, shows that the people of East Java are really fond of this art type, as can be seen from the large number of spectators during the ludruk art performance.

 

  1. c.       Cultural Touristification, Internationalization and Globalization

Cultural internationalization and globalization always raise question about the local identity of culture and human as Giddens states, “transformation ofself identity and globalization … are two poles of the dialectic of the local and the global in conditions of high-modernity” (Giddens, 1991: 32). It has been assumed generally that the internationalization process is the mosf firmly anchored identities are weakened, torn from their moorings and broken up, …. tradition and memory are misplaced ( Lanfant et.al, 1995: 8).

Tourism compels the local society and culture to ‘go international’ and through this internationalization process, the society willy-nilly should become “a multicultural member of world” and become a tourist society. Cultural tourism unconsciously leads the local society to be entrapped between two power poles. On the one hand, they are obliged to maintain their tradition and cultural custome, constituting the sellable commodity, on the other hand, internationalization through tourism network means colliding the culture against the modern world (Picard, 2006).

However, the external demolition through tourism, in fact, confirms internal searching, or searching for identity of several societies in tourist destinations. It is corresponding to the theory stating that cultural identity only emerges under condition of contrast, most often conditions of opposition. In this case, identity is defined as something fluid, open to reflexivity, reevaluation, reinterpretation or reconstruction processes (Friedman, 1994: 740). Lanfani et al (1990: x) states that identity is always in informulation, a constant site of struggle for those involved.

Seeing various changes occurring within the society, it should be realized that change is an inevitable thing, and even expected by everyone. “The elements of culture are subject to continuous social reconstruction”. The people in tourist destination areas carve and again carve their identity continuously, while the red thread to the past is not discontinued. In dialoguing about the external orientation (internationalization) and internal orientation (traditionalization), the society even creates new tradition, enlivens or intreprets the extinct tradition into an invented tradition. So, in addition to manufacturing traditions for tourism, the society also makes reinvention to consume by the members of it. It is confirmed by Friedman, that “The fourth world (indigeneous society) seeks identity in its own past or cultural specificity. Regarding this, new traditions emerged as  ‘transformation’ and adaptation to new conditions of existence. And this transformation is a recontextualization of tradition. Briefly, cultural identity is a product of active construction. (Friedman, 1994: 765).

Many people concern with this touristification. Many others concern with “social disorganization process,” in both community and family lives. Touristification will be able to change the cultural core of a society, cultural quality trivialization, and the loss of social forms that has evidently been able to support certain society integrity. Even some states that currently a very complex, tight and tidy social and religiousity link in a society has been disintegrated under the effect of tourism. The cultural effect of society liquifies gradually, and then drift into increasingly strong global cultural ocean, in tourism traffic (Picard, 2006).

Tourism has become a means of society dynamics. It is closely related to the economic improvement the tourism brings as well as the growing awareness of identity among the society. With the presence of tourism, the society around the tourist objects and destinations has dialogued dynamically and creatively the internationalization and traditionalization process to “metamorphose” or what called as internal conversion by Clifford Geertz. International conversion occurring so far is the combination of internationalization, rationalization, orthodoxisation, pragmatization, and traditionalization.

Cultural internationalization and globalization always raise question concerning the identity of local culture and human. It is generally assumed that in the internationalization process in modernization, the local society will be pinched, marginalized, and lose its cultural identity. Tourism development has result in the destructuring and restructuring process of ethnical identity media, that in turn will confirm the identity. So, the conservation cannot be defined as the attempt of ‘freezing’ a culture, because culture always changes, is reconstructed, and recreated, as the response to changing situation. The attempt of freezing culture for the sake of originality or authenticity will result in decadence.

 

  1. d.      Commodification: Combination of Cultural Art and Tourism

Art is an expressive culture while economy is a progressive culture. Defining the relationship between art and economy in postmodern thought currently is not fruitful. Basically, or substantially, in Indonesia context, now and currently, art is still considered as a “main practice” of culture while the culture is an economic business phenomenon in which the performer looks for profit. Meanwhile, tourism is a whole phenomenon and relationships resulting from the interaction between tourist, businessman, concerned host government, and concerned host society, in the procees of creating attraction and the attempt of entertaining the tourists and other visitors.

The combination of tourism and art or, say, culture is an ideal condition or even tends to be normative and it had occurred. So, it is dependent on all stakeholders (tourist, government, tourism industry, and host society) to cope with and to implement it. Without right and correct tactic and strategy and the right and correct consistently application, the tourism will affect negatively the local society owning the culture.

Multiplier effect of tourism industry occurs more in the relatively small component of tourism industry, generally owned by the local people. It is established that large tourism industry, such as hotel, restaurant, tour travel agency, transportation, and etc are more dominated by the outside and foreign investors. For that reason, what occurs is paradoxical  because when most ownerships derive from outside, it means that on the one hand, much profit is received by “them”, while the local people, on the other hand, just receives the trash. Ecological and layout damage, increased price, loose relationship in society life and eroded value norm, such as lifestyle imitation occur. An appropriate term that can be offered to mention all of them is commodification. Commodification encompasses not only product and production, like in touristification, but also distribution and consumption. The process of very industrialized tourism industrialization in the tourist destination can result in commodification.

Commodification makes something a solely commodity, directly and intentionally, consciously and with appropriate estimation. In commodification, everything can become a ready-to-sell product, from concrete object to the disguised abstractions, from plane to parts of “private body” (Synott, 1993) that are formerly hidden. Commodification is the process associated with the capitalism in which object, quality and sign are made as commodity and in which commodity is something the main objective of which is to sell in the market (Barker, 2004). So, as a result of economy, money based on the spirit of creating as much as possible profit leads to the emergence of commodification symptoms in a variety of life sectors. Commodification is not a new certain process but currently it had obtained power and intensity as an aspect of ‘corporate culture’ (Keat and Abercrombie, 1990).

Adorno states that commodification refers not only to the consumer need but also to art and culture field in general. What the capitalist does to culture is to make it compliant with the capitalist commodity law. Such the society only produce what it calls “culture industry (industry culture)”, the one  intended to its mass and production based on the producer’s power in determining its form, style and meaning (Piliang, 1998).

Such the industry culture in cultural area, particularly in wide definition of culture, will concern the cultural industry. Even, culture industry in narrow meaning, or art industry will manifest into culture industry in broad meaning. Meanwhile, according to Mazhab Frankfurt, culture industry reflects on the consolidation of commodity fetishism, domination over exchange principle and the state’s increased capitalism monopoly. Culture industry forms a mass taste and predisposition, thereby casting their awareness by implanting their demands for counterfeit needs. For that reason, culture industry attempts to override the real or true needs, alternative and radical concept or theory, as well as way of thinking and acting politically oppositional. Culture industry undertakes it so effectively that the people even do not aware of what happening (Strinati, 2003).

Commodification is not far from culture industry empowerment in which the state gives contribution despite not obviously in the surface. It is what occurs in the field. But, recently, so many art experience commodification into culture industry, and they even so massive, because they are indeed created to be merchandise, particularly for the tourism interest. Not surprisingly, art becomes culture industry, while tourism manifests into culture (generating the tourism culture). How the tourism becomes culture, particularly how the entrepreneurship spirit in tourism sector internalizes into every member of society’s head, or becomes tourism culture, in Durkheimian terms, is the “collective idea” process.

 

Discussion

One culture most frequently attributed to tourism is performing art. Performing art, as a cultural activity, can be said as having become an important element of tourism activity in Surakarta city. Performing art, whether traditional, contemporary, or modern, is one form of tourist attraction, and can be special event becoming mainstay or tourist attraction. Considering the principle of sustainable tourism development, the performing art in tourism context is ideally based on the exploration of local society’s cultural heritage in order to describe the characteristics of concerned area. The community-based performing art is one of tourism attraction that could create productive job opportunity, and economic growth, either local or national, with variability and broad secondary effect, as well as the local community’s independency. The broad secondary effect of community-based performing art makes each group of society in various areas do the similar thing compulsively, with the target of improving the income and job opportunity. Consciously or unconsciously, such the activity, directly and indirectly becomes the new stressor to various sources it has.

Currently, there is a tendency that performing art as one of tourism industry packaged jointly with other service industry that was then called as commodification of tourism package production (Fairclough, 1995). In developing countries, performing art functions as the esthetic presentation, presented to the tourists. Tourist performing art is an art of acculturation, because the art is combined packaged between the local artist and tourist’s tastes in general. In addition, the tourist art is pseudo-traditional art because the tourism art package generally refers to traditional form, but the sacred, magic, and symbolic values have been abandoned or are solely quasi (Soedarsono, 1999: 431).

Such a culture pattern has penetrated into Javanese cultural environment, the tourism performers have found a variety of cultural aspect that can be commodity asset, to be sold to the tourists visiting the Surakarta City. The Surakarta City government in this case the Surakarta City’s Culture and Tourism Office has developed, designed, and packaged the cultural event program and activity for Solo City in 2012 including: Sekaten ceremony, Ketoprak, Geguritan and Macapat Festival, Festival Dolanan Bocah (Kid Game Festivale), Keraton Art Festival, Tingalan Jumenengan Dalem PB XIII, Solo Batik Carnival, Solo International Ethnical Contemporary Music (SIEM), Solo Batik Fashion, Wayang Orang Sriwedari Great Performance, Festival Dalang Bocah (Kid Puppeteer Festival), Pentas Wayang Bocah, Solo International Performing Art (SIPA), Grebeg Besar, Javanesse Theaterical, Mangkunegaran Performing Art and etc.

In packaging such the tourist performance, the artists of Surakarta City attempt  to change their product by combining the local artists’ esthetical taste and the tourists’ one so that the product created will be sold out consistent with the market demand. However, performing art created for tourists’ taste is usually an imitation of preexisting sacred dance performing art. Although some new works are created, they still refer to structure, coreography, or composition of traditional dance. It is very positive and should be held on tightly by the local coreographers to show the typical characteristics of an area and to confirm the local culture identity because local genious should be explored and preserved as one of tourism attractions.

Because the tourists present in tourist destination for only few days, and they want to enjoy a variety of typical characteristics of the area the visit, tourist performing art presented should be adjusted for its coreography by taking into account: the imitation of the original, packaged briefly and densely, the sacred, magic and symbolic values are abandoned, replete with variations, and cheap for the tourist’s budget (Soedarsono, 1999: 432). Particularly, for Surakarta City’s culture, tourism is frequently condemned for bringing about disaster that can destroy the Surakarta city’s cultural values. But, behind it, many people still look ahead by stating that tourism is a fertilizer that can fertilize the Surakarta City Culture.

The positive effect the tourism brings about is an opportunity and a challenge all at once to the culture of Surakarta city. It, in fact, receives positive response, becoming the motivation of development, creativity, and adaptability supporting the local culture. Tourism in Surakarta City, in addition to exerting positive effect, also brings about negative one. These effects can be primary effect, the one resulting from tourism indirectly. The secondary effect is the indirectly visible effect, but it is a certain plot. For example, the incidence of livelihood change and increased income in turn leading to the change in the society’s behavior and mental attitude.

Tourist attraction, particularly the local community work-based performing art has secondary effect that can broaden the job opportunity particularly for  the local population. Art festival, for example, is related directly to the make-up, inn, and food stall bussinessmen. Food stall and restaurant affect secondarily the meat, egg, vegetable, fruit sellers, and are correlated with the animal breeder or farmer. Breeders or farmers need the businessmen to support their production (fertilizer; transformation; information service), and so do the make-up businessmen, and so on. The secondary effect resulting from the performing art contributes significantly to the increase in job opportunity expansion and income of wide society.

The tourism activity can also affect the value transformation among the local population. Generally, demonstration effects of tourism will affect the young generation. In addition, there are two views concerning the effect of tourism on culture. Firstly, tourism tends to generate commercial characteristic, and secondly, tourism will improve the cultural art creativity that can spur the local population’s creativity to create a variety of attractions in order to attact the tourist to come to the area. A sustainable tourism development can be achieved when the utilization level of such the resource does not experience regeneration ability. In order to control the utilization, several requirements should be met in each tourism development (Pitana and Gayatri, 2005).

Related to the principle of sustainable tourism development and special interest tourism, the measurement of tourism industry should focus on the broad effect of tourism marketing activity, to mitigate the deteriorated environment condition. The spesial-interest tour can be key contribution in dealing with the tourists that come massively and will spent their money impacting broadly to the deteriorated environmental condition, either physically and social-culturally. In many cases, the visitors not only purchase international products but also buy ancient antique and historical heritage objects excessively as souvenir with typical characteristic of local area. As the natural, cultural and heritage tours develop, the tourism activities should be organized more precisely to cope with the frequently excessive demand of tourism. This statement implies that the tourism organizer should proactively deal with a more complex international tourism development. The tourism organizer should develop journey packages emphasizing more on small group and or even individual trip to reduce the stressor to the provision of tourism supporting facilities (Wahab, 1997; Yoeti, 2008).

The cultural art and tourism development is a sufficiently complex problem; therefore, to study this problem, the writer uses critical theory developed by Jurgen Habermas that interaction or communicative action is determined by consensual binding norms, defining the reciprocal expectation concerning the conduct that should be understood and known at least by two subjects acting (Habermas, 1984;  Hardiman, 1993; Bernstein, 1993). Human progress results in various crisis within the society so that there is an inevitable transition; for  that reason, a new paradigm is required (Capra, 1977). Commodification attributed to the tourism realm grows a perception that there are producer and consumer groups, each of which has their own interest to achieve an objective through tourism medium. Commodification is not only a certain process, but it has obtained power and intensity as the aspect of corporate culture (Keat and Abercrombie, 1990). The commodities provided by culture industry is directed by the need to recognize its value in the market. Profit motive determines the characteristics of various cultures. Industrially, culture production is a standardization process because such the product functions to obscure the standardization and to manipulate the awareness practiced by the culture industry (Strinati, 2003: 70).

In social production process over its existence, human being enters into a variety of definite and important relations, independent of their want, the production relationship consistent with the development stages determining its material production powers. Totality of this production relationship generates the economic society structure, real foundation generating a legal and politic superstructure, and then is linked to the certain social awareness. The material life production mode conditions the social, political and generally intellectual life processes. It is not about human awareness that determines its existence, but otherwise, their social reality determines the human awareness existing within it (Storey, 2003: 5).

Human develops a plan to organize their behavior to achieve the objective of its life. The elements existing in natural and social environment is identified, classified as well as named based on a symbolic system prevailing in the society, for example, kampong, ceremony, art, and etc. Within the consumer community, there are at least three forms of power operating behind the esthetical object production and consumption: capital, producer, and mass media powers, that in turn generates a form of culture called popular culture (Piliang, 1998). Technoeconomical theory not-exclusively focuses on technique and mean used by a society to meet their economic need. Briefly, the first part of this phrase, “techno” refers to technical and material equipment and knowledge existing within the society. Furthermore, the second word “economy” emphasizes on the governance a society undertakes in using its technical equipment and knowledge for producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services (Kaplan, 1999:129).

It is this theory that on which the artists base unconsciously. They have adopted advanced technology widely to develop dance art, for conservation and redemption and development. The development of gamelan set has employed a advanced technology related to its manufacturing process. The use of cosmetics, electronic appliances (sound system) to get good sound and good lighting appliances as well as technique to get maximum effect to support the integrity of a performing art staging and so on. For that reason, the artists shoul collaborate the technicians relating to such the technology. All of them are done to to get side effects in market competition process.

In the presence of various activities based on the traditional performing art in Surakarta City, the Java culture is more well-known to the foreign countries. It not only gives the Javanese culture the identity, but also is a means of promotion in tourism area. Despite pro and con polemics in the categorization of performing art function, it does not result in prolonged conflict. Thus, the artistic community, particularly that in Java, considers that there is a reciprocal mutual beneficial relatonship between tourism and the existence of performing art in Java.

 

Concluding Remark

Cultural art, whatever its form, is frequently considered as able to be paralleled with or to accompany a variety of interests, regardless the goal and objective. The time running following the flow of community’s demand is a sharpener stone that measures its ability, from the sacred rite to ceremonial that is more entertaining in nature putting the performing art into its sequence. The development and distribution occurring resulting from some factors one of which is globalization. The development and change included form or structure, duration, performer as well as setting. Cultural art can remain to be faithful to its form by carrying different message. The development or change not always alters the presentation structure and turn out of its archetype. However, it is not always true to cultural art. Sometimes, the change and the distribution are indeed required to meet certain need. The political, economic effect, and social need putting it on the position to compromise with the need.

From the elaboration above, it can be concluded that globalism as a contemporary phenomenon is impossible to eliminate the cultural and civilization pluralism. On the contrary, in its extreme manifestation, globalism can become a nationalism generator solidified by an awareness as a typical cultural unit. Regarding this, a pendulum law will presumably apply, that the extreme pulling toward globalism will result in reverse movement to the opposite direction, in the form of nationalism (chauvinism) reaction. It can  be witnessed from a variety of oppositional reaction tends to occur as the result of foreign culture effect domination over others.

The tourism development as an industry has a sufficiently amazing power. Propaganda and promotion conducted, tour package is developed, tourist attraction is served, souvenir is sold, and coming tourists’ behavior, all of them can affect the society, particularly in the tourist visitation area frequently visited by the tourists. Indonesia country, developing tourism as an industry expected to increase the state’s foreign exchange revenue, presumably is open to the foreign tourist arrival. Because of their arrival, the cultural art we has becomes more meaningful and valued highly. Domestic tourists want to witness the cultural art because of their curiosity on the their nation ancestor’s heritage constituting a major part of their nation’s history. Meanwhile, the foreign tourist considers that each cultural art heritage existing for them is an inheritance of human being’s culture as a whole.

On the basis of it, we should open our cultural heritage and make it “prospective commodity’ in tourism industry. What we should do is to give understanding and education to the youngsters and the public about the importance of our ancestor cultural heritage conservation for our nation’s identity, value-added establishment, and national pride, and important commodity in our tourism industry. Similarly, the attempt of implanting the awareness among the tourists to jointly maintain and to appreciate the almost extinct human being ancestor cultural heritage.

To support this idea successfully, there should be supporting means. Firstly, the availability of information centers for tourists, available in the form of brochure, leaflet, booklet, and publication through internet. Secondly, the guide should function as the good illuminator, so that the visitor can understand the importance of maintaining and preserving an area’s or a nation’s cultural art. Thirdly, museum should excite the young generation and the public as well as the tourists visiting to appreciate the cultural art objects and to participate in maintaining the scarce cultural objects. Fourthly, maintaining, developing, and keeping away the cultural heritage objects such as temples, pura (Balinese temples), ancient buildings, petilasan, and monuments from damage, stealing, and pollution probably occurring. Fifthly, tourism policy maker should invite the public in the tourist destination area to explore, to develop and to maintain the cultural art they have by holding festivals, providing padepokan infrastructure, traditional dance schools, enlivening the traditional dance art groups in Senior High School, and giving award to those with high achievement, if necessary.

 

 

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