The Social Reproduction of Wayang Orang Sriwedari Performing Art as the Attempt of Preserving Cultural Tourist Attraction in Surakarta City

Dr. Argyo Demartoto, M.Si.

 

Introduction

Surakarta city or more frequently called Solo city with its slogan Solo the Spirit of Java has many tourism potencies appealing to both domestic and foreign tourists. One of them is wayang orang performing art cultural tourist attraction as special interest tour (Zeppel & Hall, 1992; Breenan, 1995). Wayang orang is a kind of Javanese cultural richness that has been present since 18th century. This art makes traditional art high culture, used as an entertainment media for the rulers at  that era (Krippendorf, 1987). A long history colored the journey of wayang orang. In 1910, the association of wayang orang Sriwedari began to perform in Kebon Raja Sriwedari (Sriwedari King Park). The performing art of Wayang Orang Sriwedari began to develop in the middle of 1940s, up to its glory time in early 1970s. In Wayang Orang Sriwedari’ glory time, Kebon Raja Sriwedari that began to open for public was always crowded by the visitors. Everyday, the performers of wayang always performed different character of wayang play.

Solo city became the mute witness of the fluctuating condition of Wayang Orang Sriwedari. The glory time turned around by almost 180 degrees in the beginning of 21st century. The  crowded nights of wayang orang Sriwedari staging is increasingly scrapped by silence. The relatively complete performing facilities as if become eye entertainer for a handful of spectators. Despite somewhat decreasing excitement of the performance, the Wayang orang Sriwedari performers’ as well as mentor’s seriousness in preserving traditional cultural art deserves two thumbs up. The play scene is accompanied by the performers’ supplely dancing, adorning the wayang orang Sriwedari performance up to now. The loyalty of preserving the court’s cultural heritage has been arguable a proud for 85 members of wayang orang Sriwedari to keep surviving amid the modern age exposition. The beauty of this nation’s traditional cultural art   can survive amid postmodern civilization current. Nevertheless, the existence of wayang orang Sriwedari is expected to be extinct gradually. This essay tries to observe and to analyze such the problem with Pierre Bourdieau’s concept of  social reproduction.

 

Wayang Orang Sriwedari as Cultural Tour Attraction

Wayang orang is a dancing play art taking up Ramayana and Mahabarata stories as its main story. From its story aspect, wayang orang is the manifestation of dancing play from purwa (leather) puppet. Originally, in the middle of 18th century, all wayang orang dancers were male, no female dancer. Wayang orang was found by Kanjeng Pangeran Aripati Arya Mangkunegara I (1757 -1795). The performers at that time consisted of the palace’s internal servants. Wayang orang was first performed restrictively in 1760. Only in Mangkunegaran V reign the wayang orang performance began to be socialized, despite limited to the court relatives’ and their servant’s enjoyment. The socialization of wayang orang art had been done in almost same time with the advent of Langendriyan dance play.

In Mangkunegaran VII reign (1916-1944), wayang orang art began to be introduced to the people outside the court’s wall. The attempt of socializing this art ran more rapidly when Sunan Paku Buwono X (1893-1939) initiated wayang orang performance for the public in Balekambang, Sriwedari Park, and fair organized in the Surakarta City’s square. The performers no longer consisted of internal servants (abdi dalem), but those from outside court with dancing skill. The commercially organization of wayang orang performance had begun only in 1922. Originally, it was done to gather the fund for the cultural congress. Then, in 1932, wayang orang entered the radio  broadcast for the first time, in Solosche Radio Vereeniging, receiving great acceptance from the public.

Wayang orang art, in fact, received great acceptance from the public so that some wayang orang associations emerged, one of which was Wayang orang Sriwedari in Surakarta and Ngesti Pandawa in Semarang. Wayang orang Sriwedari was established in 1911. This wayang orang association (company) performed permanently in Kebon Raja Sriwedari, the park owned by Kasunanan Surakarta Palace. The prominent artists included Sastradirun, Rusman, Darsi, and Surana. The success of wayang orang Sriwedari socializing the wayang orang made it appointed as one tourist destination for both domestic and foreign destination. The form of wayang orang Sriwedari performance was not only on the stage, but also in hotels for tourist interest adjusted to different spatial, temporal and places. It means that wayang orang entered industrial realm through tourism perspective meaning that wayang orang should experience changes according to the tourism framework. Such the framework becomes not only strategy of a new policy in traditional art life but also an essence of tourism economic system (Soekadijo, 1977).

Entering service industry, tourism is an interconnected network of producer-intermediary-consumer. So, there are supply, demand, and marketing the producer takes into account; there are also organization and adjustment to what the consumer wants over the object presented by the producer. In this context, the cultural tourism attraction should change their image and wish. In the case of failure in cultural tourism service industry, the network of government, producer and consumer should be organized and reconceptualized comprehensively with the focus on producer area because the tourism marketing strategy pays considerable attention to what the tourist demands (Borley, 1995). On the other hand, the industrial-oriented tourism is suspected as the way of “undermining the genuine culture”, so that the producer area development and reformation deserves to be put forward.

 

Bourdieu’s Habitus Theory

The phenomenon of wayang orang Sriwedari performing art will be conceived with Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of social reproduction. Bourdieu’s perception on social reproduction using language analogy is explained in Language and Symbolic Power (1992). According to Bourdieu: Language is an integral part of social life, with all rules and inequalities, and that a good part of our social life consist of routine exchange of linguistic expression in the day to day flow of social interaction. (Bourdieu, 1992: 1).

Furthermore, Bourdieu also stated that: Everyday linguistic exchanges as situated encounters between agents endowed with socially structured resource and competencies, in such a way that every linguistic interaction, however personal and insignificant in may seem, bear the traces of social structure that it both expresses and helps to reproduces. (Bourdieu, 1992: 2).

What Bourdieu suggests contains habitus concept as one factor supporting the occurrence of production process. “ The habitus is a set of dispositions which incline agents to act and react in certain ways. The dispositions generate practices, perceptions and attitude which are regular without being consciously co-ordinated or governed by any rule. The dispositions which constitute the habitus are incaculated, structured, durable, generative and transposable features that each deserve a brief explanation”. (Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992: 115-117; Bourdieu, 1992: 12).

The term habitus contains agent meaning. This concept is used as the attempt of conceiving the components existing in social reproduction consisting of object structure, practices, and agent. Habitus is an interconnected media of object structure and its operating activities. (Harker et. al, 1990). Habitus, as Bourdieu suggests above, is confirmed for its definition by Harker stating that: The habitus is the way a culture is embodied in the individual. (Harker, 1984: 119). An individually description of culture can, among others, be seen from the network, social network and socialization system in a case study of social stratification on European society to gain education opportunity as suggested by Harker. Those three components, in fact, play important role in the social reproduction of wayang orang Sriwedari performing art.

 

Social cultural dynamic of wayang orang Sriwedari

Entering the wayang orang Sriwedari building, our eyes strike directly the dim circumstance of building. Some paintings of puppetry world put on the wall have been apparently dime and damaged due to age. The spectator chairs are modest but enough to make the spectators relax because they are equipped with back and arm supports. The circumstance of stage is not much different. The apparently old and dirty lighting equips the stage decoration that also seems to be old and uses manual system. The only thing makes us slightly amused is its sound system. It is thundering and clear, so that the performers’ dialogues can be heard clearly throughout building.

The quality of performance, however, degrades compared with that of glory time. The condition with few spectators affects the performer’s mood; the performers feel bored because they think that there is no one appreciating their own art. A professor of Surakarta Indonesian Art Institute, Sri Rochana Widyatutieningrum, states that there are for reasons of why the shine of wayang orang is dull now. Firstly, the wayang orang package seems to be monotonous and static currently. Secondly, there is no longer a stage star becoming the spectators’ idol, like those in its glory time such as Rusman, Darsi or Surono leading to the subsiding interest among the society. Thirdly, the less harmonious relationship between old and young generations. Disharmony can be triggered by the strong feeling of seniority and different perspective in packaging a performance. Fourthly,  as the result of disharmony, the performers’ work ethos decreases so that the quality of performance is no longer interesting to the spectators. The harmonious relationship among the performers is a principal capital to provide a good performance. A Surakarta artist, Sardono W. Kusumo, says that the typical characteristic of and working system of wayang orang artists is to perform not individually but systemically.

Along with the modernization development, wayang orang Sriwedari art is gradually abandoned by its fans and the performers cannot perform the puppetry character because they have been old and even passed away before getting their substitute. The society, particularly the young generation currently loves its nation’s culture and art product reluctantly. Many youths even do not care about it. Only a few of them care about it and it is only limited to research.

 

 

 

Social Reproduction and the attempt of preserving wayang orang Sriwedari performing art: Problems and Solutions

Saptari and Holzner suggest that literally reproduction is defined as replacing what has been exhausted or extinct for the preservation of system or corresponding social structure. Reproduction concerns with the activities occurring not only in household (childbirth), but also the society, for example those ensuring the preservation of social structure such as life cycle or social activity within the community. Furthermore, what the social reproduction means is the process in which the relationship between production and social structure is reproduced and preserved consistently (Saptari and Holzner, 1997).

The activities of wayang orang Sriwedari performing art still exist up to now, because of the presence of object structure, practices and agents engaging in such the activity, particularly the performers of wayang orang, spectators (tourists), City Government (Tourism Service), Surakarta Palace and tourist agent. Among the performers of art activities in wayang orang Sriwedari performing art, there are those performing as agent who unintentionally also determines the survival of wayang orang Sriwedari performing art activities today. The agent is the tourist agents such as travel agents, hotels and restaurants inside and outside Surakarta city. These agents establish a network, in turn leading to the reproduction of such the activity. To help understand such the network, the following chart of network explains it.

Chart 1

The Network of wayang orang Sriwedari performing art activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 1.      Internal Social Reproduction through socialization system

One thing highly determines the activities of wayang orang Sriwedari performing art is the habitus sharing among the participants of activity. Durkheim’s argument about collective thought is really helpful to understand the phenomenon. Collective thought exists outside individual. Having been uttered, gotten information, been introduced, and established, the collective thought is then formulated and stored in corresponding society’s language. Furthermore can be sent down to the next generation. When the first generation of society that found and developed the collective thought pass away, the new one can forward the thought. The collective thought is also considered as superior to the individual one because it has power to govern the behavior and to become a guidelines for the members of society (Koentjaraningrat, 1980: 91).

For that reason, there should be an attempt of regenerating the performers of wayang orang Sriwedari performing art among the young generation that is interested in and has talent in traditional dancing play art. The internal social reproduction can be done by the performers of wayang orang Sriwedari by conducting the socialization and training actively to the members of some play and dance studios existing in Surakarta city. The building and development of play and dance art extracurricular activities at schools as well as recruitment for new performers of wayang orang are also some ways that can be done in internal social reproduction. The management of wayang orang Sriwedari can develop the performing schedule and give the new performer the opportunity to be on the stage. The socialization, training, and performing activities should be done in routine and sustainable manner.

To generate more spectators, the Tourism Office of Surakarta City conducts internal building. It means that certain performance will generate its own spectators. Novelties the group presents will be enjoyed by the group community itself, so that the spectators will remain to exist. The form of new wayang orang performance included adolescent wayang orang, female wayang orang and child wayang orang through child wayang orang festival. There is a collaboration between the Tourism Office of Surakarta City and other institution such as Surakarta City’s Education and Sport Office that has conducted socialization and training concerning the wayang orang to the students at school.

From the art attraction aspect, the performers’ idea and creativity should be increased. The member of wayang orang Sriwedari can make a creation with various tricks to attract the society’s interest. Although the story performed still uses Javanese story (pakem), the presentation of it on the stage should follow the age development. For example, the joke to liquefy the circumstance, interacting directly with the spectators (audiences), stage display such as lighting and supporting property, duration cutting that was previously 5-6 hours is reduced to 2 hours for one appearance, the staging hour is scheduled earlier from 09.00 p.m. previously, as well as performer rolling to remove the image “familiar not with the character but the performer.

 

  1. 2.      Social network and network
    1. a.      The role of Surakarta municipal government

Surakarta City Government actually has contributed significantly to conducting the socialization by including wayang orang Sriwedari in Solo City’s tour journals or tour travel brochure. The Tourism Office of Surakarta City had made publication through some medias, both printed and electronic, and through distributing the ticket of wayang orang performance to the employees of municipal government in order that the employees and their family more familiar with this art. In addition, the management of Wayang orang Sriwedari association has invited proactively the schools from Elementary to Junior High  to Senior High Schools to introduce the wayang orang art to the young generation. But the number of visitors remain to be small.

Responding to the small number of spectators of wayang orang Sriwedari, the Surakarta City Government (Tourism Office and other related institutions) and the Private should keep trying to kindle the spectacle. The governmental institution serves as “god father”, patron and or cultivator (builder) for the association of wayang orang Sriwedari.

A variety of measures have been taken so far. Firstly, the inclusion of wayang orang art into the guidance of municipal government through Tourism Office. This decision enables the member of wayang orang association  to be hired as the civil servants in Municipal Government neighborhood but the members of wayang orang Sriwedari company’s welfare can be said as still alarming. Secondly, the municipal government gives grant in the form of costumes, artistic fixtures and building renovation in order to create a more attractive, glamour and spectacular spectacle. With god father system, the elements of artistic working and management will be organized more professionally. Thirdly, the tourism institution currently helps promote wayang orang through tourist information center (TIC), and helps translate anything both the foreign and the domestic tourists like, so that the wayang orang work sometimes resembles an interesting “theatre” with new work tone.

The mutualism symbiosis between art and the builder and patron institution is very desirable to make the building and marketing more organized and structured. But the journey of wayang orang Sriwedari is still tottering. The internal and external building and marketing strategies in fact have not run optimally.

The creativity of work is done by the artists belonging to the wayang orang community, while the marketing that is more economic oriented is worked on by the tourism institutions, in this case the Tourism Office of Surakarta City such as tourism information published in the form of pamphlet, folder and leaflet concerning the wayang orang Sriwedari. It indicates the serious consideration from the tourism institutions in the attempt of marketing the tourist objects in Surakarta City. Nevertheless, the marketing of wayang orang art is limited only to the Surakarta City area, the towns outside Surakarta city are rarely reached by the typical Surakarta traditional events.

Meanwhile, the building (cultivation) is conducted twice a month. The material of cultivation contains general (the performers’ welfare) and technical (artistic creativity) cultivation. Several things need improvement such as: dance, karawitan (gamelan music), decoration, stage scenario, lighting, direction and character performing. The instructors invited consist of the lecturers of Surakarta Indonesian Art Institute and several traditional art instructors.

The spectator also become an important problem to solve. If we have a chance to visit the wayang orang Sriwedari building and enjoy the presentation every night except on Sunday at. 20.00, we will only meet a handful of spectators. The building with 500 seat is only filled in by about 30 spectators, maximum 100 spectators at weekend. Despite low price of IDR 3000 per person, it no longer generates enthusiasm among the people of Solo City. It is tragic indeed; the art rooted deeply as a cultural heritage, is now vulnerable to be overthrew by modernity beat.

  1. b.      Tourism agent and professionally management of tourist attraction

The tourist agents occupy the most important post because they prepare the relationship channel with the tourist. The tourist agents’ attitude, taste, and expectation are varied toward the tourists. In developing country, the tourist agent usually plays the second role after government or Tourism Office because of their limited scope of work. The tourist agents existing in Indonesia, particularly for wayang orang Sriwedari is travel agents, hotel, and restaurants. But the travel agent does not do much in promoting wayang orang performing art to the foreign tourist. Meanwhile, hotel and restaurant only functions as the place to which the brochures of wayang orang is entrusted.

Tourist agent should serve as consultant and as tour guide. These two roles are very important for the tourist agent so that the tourist agent organization should have network and cooperation with the government institution related to tourism. Tourism agent’s staff should be hard worker and have strong business spirit. They should be able to develop vacation package programs highly preferred by the tourism in certain season, and should be able to promote and distribute rapidly the new information acceptable to the tourists.

So far, the wayang orang Sriwedari does not have professional tourist agent that can govern the travel and organize the cultural tourist activities. Gradually, people watch wayang orang art more rarely. Because there is no good management, the wayang orang art’s life is getting more languished. A good tourist attraction should elicit as many as possible tourists, retain them as long as possible in the attraction place and give them satisfaction. The available cultural tourism source has not been utilized economically and culturally. The business seems to be done consistently but never provides an ideal condition. For that reason, the criteria of good tourist object should be considered. The activities and objects constituting the tourist attraction should be in good condition. The presence of good handling effort by the management of wayang orang Sriwedari that has historical heritage component, such as the location of Sriwedari park, alone has been the guarantee for the tourist to remember its building history. Then, the art itself remind us at the glory time of ancient kingdoms. There are two ways of maintaining the existence of wayang orang. Firstly, to the building or Sriwedari location should be added some incremental entertainment to support the tourist number increase and to enhance the weight of wayang orang existence. For example, some dangdut music performances are held, recreation park for family is made available, so are the restaurants, and souvenir shops around the performance building. Secondly, the old and obsolete components are renewed, so that the performance seems to be up to date such as repairing the gamelan, costumes and lighting fixtures of the building.

The way of presenting the cultural tourist attraction should be appropriate. The tourist attraction is considered as successful when it can give the tourist the impression, so that they feel satisfied. The tourist satisfaction is highly dependent on the presentation mode that can be done by organizing the spatial-place-temporal perspective (Soedarsono, 1998). Spatial perspective means the neighborhood where the wayang orang Sriwedari exists. Through the municipal government’s policy, it is decided that wayang orang Sriwedari complex is a tourism object area. The environment production management should get more attention, the composition, form, and color as well as tourist object positions surrounding should be organized in order to retain the tourists but from the environment management, the management system has not been optimal and effective. The wayang orang Sriwedari building should be the focus of tourist’s attention, while the tourist object surrounding will support its existence. But, other tourist objects such as dangdut music performance and playing arena are more dominant. The position of Sriwedari building located in rear area with dim light makes its facade lusterless. For that reason, the spectators are only interested in other tourist objects. Meanwhile, the location and position of Sriwedari as tourist object is very strategic and established in relation to place and temporal perspective.

The historical aspect of performance and its location should be satisfies more the tourist’s curiosity with the object. Similarly, the stories of wayang orang displayed through brochure, leaflet, and folder should be absorbable by the tourists. Although the attempt of publishing the tourist object has been taken, it has not been optimal. It means that, the publication has been distributed to the restaurants, tourist agents, certain shops, but it is not present in the building itself. The tourist  is given opportunity to wear the clothes the kingdom family wear, and then they are photographed as the remembrances when the tourists go back home. The tourist is also given the opportunity to strike the gamelan and to try the simple dance movements. For that reason, an instructor is needed who is always available during the tourist arrival. Taking the picture of tourist with local/ancient kingdom clothes can provide monetary income to the management, trying to strike gamelan and dance will retain the tourist in that place and will grow the tourist’s appreciation on Javanese culture.

The development of wayang orang Sriwedari cultural tourist attraction is highly dependent on the public infrastructure supporting the tourist arrival. A tourist object should be reached and found easily. The wayang orang Sriwedari complex lies in the downtown of Surakarta City. The parking area is available adjusted with the number of expected tourist arrivals and used vehicles. The public facility such as taxi, pedicab, city bus, and other facility can reach it easily. The road toward the location is in good condition as well. Only the guidepost to the location is less optimal. So many name boards of certain hotel make the tourists capture more rapidly the information on hotel compared with that on Sriwedari complex with the programs within it. In Sriwedari complex, such supporting facilities supporting the tourist needs have been available as: restaurant, and souvenir shops but the visitor is also a little in number.

The impression the tourist obtained during watching tourist attraction should be attempted to stay there as long as possible. The longer a tourist can preserve his/her impression during watching the tourist object, it is better. The tourist should bring it to his/her origin, so that he/she can feel anymore the fascination of tourist object he/she ever sees (Tadjuddin, 1995), It can be done by binding him/he to some items reminding him/her at the tourist object. The souvenir should be not perishable and can bring home, as well as always be in front of the tourist. For example, photographs and wayang orang Sriwedari dolls are sold in other places. This kind of way is sufficiently effective. Economically, this souvenir business is very important. The individual tourist expense is usually higher than that of watching the tourist object. The Tourism Office of Surakarta City may pay less attention to this.

By meeting the criteria of being good tourist object, it is expected that the social reproduction of wayang orang Sriwedari can preserve the cultural tourist attraction in Surakarta City.

 

 

Conclusion

Relying on the principles of sustainable tourism development, the wayang orang performing art in tourism context is ideally built on the exploration of local society cultural heritage in order to describe the characteristics of the corresponding area. For the wayang orang performing art to be preserved, meaning it always exist, some attempts should be taken: protection, development, and utilization. Protection involves the attempts of precluding the cultural product from extinction or damage; development involves the processing leading to improved quality or increased vocabulary; utilization involves the attempt of using the cultural products for a variety of utilities, such as to emphasize on the image of a nation’s identity, to educate the cultural awareness (through internalization or multicultural appreciation), to be made as cultural industry content and tourist attraction.

Wayang orang, as Javanese traditional art, is the cultural rich the Indonesian nation has, so that it can be the appeal and asset that can be utilized to attract the tourists. When wayang orang is managed and cultivated in integrated manner by the cultivators of related institutions, whether the officials, art thinkers, and private, it will be a package of cultural tourist industry presentation. Cultivation and management can be developed by improving the artist’s skill and ability in management field.

Another important attempt is to give the young generation and wide public the understanding and briefing about the importance of our ancestor’s heritage preservation effort for our nation’s identity, the creation of plus value and national pride, and important commodity in our tourism industry. Still another attempt is to instill the awareness among the tourists of collectively maintaining and appreciating the human being ancestor’s  cultural heritage that is almost extinct. We believe, without excessive direction and briefing, the young generation and the public as well as the tourists consciously will participate and engage in maintaining and preserving that invaluable cultural art. Thus, the cultural heritage we have should be made ‘curiosity object’ so that it can be attractive to many groups of people, from those who are curious, amazes, or wants to obtain a description about the glory our ancestor had achieved in the past.

In addition, the practitioners are asked to encourage the young generation toward such the scientific curiosity. To support this successful idea implementation, some supporting facilities should be made available. Firstly, the availability of information centers for the tourists, including brochure, leaflet, booklet, among others containing what is prohibited, what should be done, and what behavior should be assumed in addition to information on the object to see or attraction to watch. Secondly, the tour guide should serve as the good illuminator, so that the visitor can understand the importance of maintaining and preserving an area’s or a nation’s cultural art. Thirdly, our tourism policy makers should invite the people of the tourist destination to explore, develop and maintain the local art the area has by holding festivals, providing the padepokan (residence) infrastructure and traditional dance school, kindling the traditional dance art groups in Senior High Schools, and if necessary giving reward to those having good performance (achievement).

 

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